Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidivarin (CBDV) are natural cannabinoids which are consumed in increasing amounts worldwide in cannabis extracts, as they prevent epilepsy, anxiety, and seizures. It was claimed that they may be useful in cancer therapy and have anti-inflammatory properties. Adverse long-term effects of these drugs (induction of cancer and infertility) which are related to damage of the genetic material have not been investigated. Therefore, we studied their DNA-damaging properties in human-derived cell lines under conditions which reflect the exposure of consumers. Both compounds induced DNA damage in single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) experiments in a human liver cell line (HepG2) and in buccal-derived cells (TR146) at low levels (≥ 0.2 µM). Results of micronucleus (MN) cytome assays showed that the damage leads to formation of MNi which reflect chromosomal aberrations and leads to nuclear buds and bridges which are a consequence of gene amplifications and dicentric chromosomes. Additional experiments indicate that these effects are caused by oxidative base damage and that liver enzymes (S9) increase the genotoxic activity of both compounds. Our findings show that low concentrations of CBD and CBDV cause damage of the genetic material in human-derived cells. Furthermore, earlier studies showed that they cause chromosomal aberrations and MN in bone marrow of mice. Fixation of damage of the DNA in the form of chromosomal damage is generally considered to be essential in the multistep process of malignancy, therefore the currently available data are indicative for potential carcinogenic properties of the cannabinoids.
PMID: 30341733 DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2322-9
Med J Aust || doi: 10.5694/mja17.01099 bPublished online: 12 November 2018
Although medicinal cannabis can now be prescribed for CINV, high quality clinical trial evidence is required to determine its efficacy and safety
Access to medicinal cannabis in Australia is a rapidly evolving and controversial field that is relevant to clinicians across a range of medical disciplines. There is widespread community interest in allowing access to medicinal cannabis for a variety of unapproved indications, despite a lack of high level evidence of efficacy.1 Legal and regulatory constraints make this access challenging; however, state and federal governments have now passed legislation enabling prescription by medical practitioners of medicinal cannabis in defined circumstances.2 In recognition of the lack of high level evidence supporting the use of medicinal cannabis for indications including but not limited to cancer pain, refractory paediatric epilepsy and palliative care, combined with the lack of formalised teaching in medical training programs, the Australian Government Therapeutics Goods Administration, in conjunction with state and territory governments, has commissioned a systematic review into the efficacy of medicinal cannabis, and has developed guidance documents for indications in which the evidence base is strongest to assist clinicians in appropriate prescribing of cannabis-based products.3 Despite these initiatives, willingness by medical practitioners to prescribe remains a significant barrier, with only 34 registered prescribers as of 31 July 2018.4
What is COPD?
Symptoms of COPD can include wheezing, shortness of breath, and tightness in the chest. COPD describes a group of long-term lung diseases that includes bronchitis and emphysema. These diseases cause inflammation, which impairs airflow in and out of the lungs, making breathing difficult.
COPD is progressive, meaning that a person's symptoms tend to get worse over time. Cigarette smoking is the most common cause of COPD.
Symptoms of COPD can vary in severity but typically include:
Smoking marijuana and COPD
A person's risk of developing COPD may increase due to heavy marijuana smoking.
The medical community is unsure whether smoking marijuana increases a person's risk of COPD. According to the American Thoracic Society, heavy marijuana smoking is likely to cause lung damage, which could increase a person's risk of developing COPD.
Many of the harmful and volatile chemicals in tobacco smoke are also present in marijuana smoke. Regardless of the source, smoke, ash, and heat are harmful to the lungs and can damage their lining. This seems to suggest that marijuana smoke is likely to cause COPD.
Also, the manner of smoking can increase the risk of lung damage. A person usually inhales marijuana smoke more deeply and holds it in the lungs for longer than cigarette smoke.
Long-term use may also lead to inflammation and swelling of the bronchial tubes, which can cause symptoms of chronic bronchitis, such as increased mucus production, coughing, and wheezing.
The ‘claims’ on cannabis often reach legendary status, particularly as the pro-drug lobby hijack the market place communications and create ‘feeding frenzy’ headlines!
We have always said that a 140 character Tweet is mightier than 10,000 hard evidence-based research journals, in our current information rich, but knowledge poor social media culture!
This webpage Snake Oil Cannabis? Scientific evidence for the medical benefits Scientific evidence for the medical benefits, is at least one attempt to get some balance away from propaganda and hype of the ‘info-tainment’ that is passing as research news, which only continues to aid and abet the manufactured consensus around this plant!
We want to make perfectly clear that for the most part this info-graph is in concert with the current scientific evidence to date. However, at least one piece of data on the chart we know should be recategorized out of the ‘promising’ category to, at best, ‘INCONCLUSIVE’. The vast majority of the ‘data’ around cannabis impact on pain is at best anecdotal, and evidence from placebo trials are almost as effective on ‘pain’ as some cannabis formulations!
What is also very important to remember, if the product you are using is not Fully vetted, tested and trialled to FDA (Food & Drug Administration) and/or TGA (Therapeutic Goods Administration) and/or MHRA (Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency) standards and registered as a pharmaceutical, it is NOT medicine, it is Snake Oil!